100 The World of Biology (4)
An introduction to biology. Provides an overview of the study of life, including how biology affects our daily lives, including such topics as biodiversity, genetic engineering, and problems associated with the expanding human population. Designed for non-science majors. $50 lab fee. Offered each semester.
130 Principles of Biology I: Ecology and Evolution (4)
An introduction to the biological sciences. Topics include ecology, Darwinian evolution, population genetics, speciation, the origin of life, animal form and function, animal behavior, and biological conservation. Designed for students intending to pursue a major in biology, EES or ENVS. Offered each fall.
132 Principles of Biology II: Cell Biology and Genetics (4)
Completes the introduction to the biological sciences for biology and EES majors. Lecture topics include biochemistry, cell structure and processes, cell respiration, fermentation, photosynthesis, cell division, Mendelian genetics, gene expression, cancer biology, and animal physiology. $50 lab fee. Offered each spring.
150 Introduction to Marine Biology (4)
An introduction to the organisms and communities of marine and estuarine areas. Students examine the basic physical and ecological processes that are pertinent to marine habitats and the diversity of marine organisms and ecosystems. Includes field and laboratory identification of local organisms and investigations of local field habitats. Designed for non-science majors. $50 lab fee. Offered each fall.
200 Principles of Biology III: The Diversity of Life (4)
Completes the introduction to the life sciences for Biology majors with a survey of all major lineages of organisms on the planet, including bacteria and archaea, fungi, plants, protists, and animals. $50 lab fee. Prerequisite: BIO 130 or BIO 132 and sophomore status or higher. Offered each fall.
201 Microbiology for the Health Sciences (4)
This course is intended for those students enrolled in the joint Nursing Program with the Sentara College of Health Sciences and is an introduction to the science of the biology of microorganisms as applied to health care settings. $50 lab fee. Prerequisite: CHEM 130. Offered every fall or on demand.
202 Human Nutrition (4)
This course is designed to introduce processes by which the human body obtains nutrients from food to maintain structural and functional integrity. We explore dietary sources, intake levels and the requirement of major nutrients, role of nutrition in growth and human health, and the role of diet in chronic diseases. Prerequisites: CHEM 130 and BIO 221 or BIO 222. Offered every summer or on demand.
221 Human Anatomy and Physiology I (4)
An integrated lecture/laboratory experience that examines the anatomy and physiology of humans. Includes a survey of the nervous, muscular, skeletal, integumentary, and respiratory systems. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. $50 lab fee. Offered each fall.
222 Human Anatomy and Physiology II (4)
An integrated lecture/laboratory experience that examines the anatomy and physiology of humans. Includes a survey of the cardiovascular, endocrine, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. $50 lab fee. Offered spring on demand.
288 Genetics (4)
Principles of heredity as applied to both plants and animals. Prerequisites: CHEM 120 and BIO 130 and 132. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered each spring.
308 Molecular Plant Physiology (4) W
A study of the molecular nature of how plants survive and respond to their environment. Topics include hormone regulations, carbon metabolism, plant cell identity, fluid transport and response to stress. Common techniques used in molecular biology will be introduced. Groups will design a short research project utilizing these techniques. Prerequisites: BIO 132 and sophomore status or higher, and ENG 105 with a grade of C or higher. Corequisite: BIO288. Offered on demand.
316 General Ecology (4) W
A study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environment. Topics will range from the individual level to the global scale, including both basic and applied ecological topics. Prerequisites: BIO 130, successful completion of ENG 105 with a grade of C or higher, and sophomore status or higher. Identical to EES 316.
319 Field Studies in Coastal Environments (4)
Couples ecological principles with field observation and data collection to understand the coastal environment. Major course topics include: organisms of the marine coastal environments; sampling and analytical approaches for studying plankton, invertebrates, nekton, and plants; and conservation issues in marine ecosystems. $200 lab fee. Offered every summer.
320 Ornithology (4)
A study of birds emphasizing diversity, behavioral ecology, and life history. Regular field observations are required and may occur under a variety of weather conditions. Prerequisite: BIO 130 and sophomore status or higher. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.
333 Conservation Biology (4)
This course examines conservation at multiple levels (genes to ecosystems) from a biological perspective. We examine what is currently known about biodiversity loss, and the consequences of that loss for ecosystems. Students will build skills relevant to a conservation-related career, including review of scientific evidence and management planning. Prerequisite: BIO 130, and sophomore status or higher. Offered fall of odd-numbered years.
340 Tropical Marine Ecology (4)
An introduction to major tropical marine habitats and ecological processes that control tropical marine ecosystems with a focus on coral reefs, mangroves and tropical seagrass beds. Organisms characteristic of these habitats and their symbiotic relationships will be examined. Prerequisites: BIO 130/131 or BIO 200 or consent. Offered on demand.
355 Marine Ecology (4)
A study of organismal adaptation and community organization in marine and estuarine habitats. A variety of marine habitats are examined, with the laboratory focusing primarily on local species and habitat types. Prerequisite: two semesters of general biology or BIO 130 and sophomore status or higher or consent. Offered each fall.
371 Histology (4)
A detailed study of the cells, tissues, and organs that comprise the mammalian body. Intended for students seeking careers in biology, medicine, or veterinary sciences. Prerequisite: a grade of C or higher in BIO 132 and sophomore status or higher. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.
372 Comparative Anatomy (4)
A study of the evolution, morphology, and physiology of vertebrates. An intensive laboratory-directed examination of the major organ systems of vertebrates as exemplified by the lamprey, dogfish, salamander, and cat. Intended for students seeking careers in biology, medicine, or veterinary sciences. Prerequisites: BIO 200 with a grade of C or higher or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.
373 Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
A survey of the marine invertebrate phyla, emphasizing the classification, evolution, ecology, morphology, and life histories of these organisms. Includes laboratory examinations of representative groups and field sampling of local invertebrate fauna. Prerequisite: BIO 200or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.
375 Topics in Tropical Biology (4)
An intensive field experience in neotropical ecosystems(rainforests, coral reefs, mangroves, caves, etc.). Descriptive studies of local flora and fauna will be combined with an in-depth investigation of a topic of interest. Field activities will include moderately strenuous exercise under a variety of weather conditions. Destinations may include Belize, Costa Rica, or other tropical sites. Course fee required. Identical to EES 375. Prerequisite: BIO 130 and sophomore status or higher, and consent. Offered in select January Terms. Runs concurrently with BIO 435.
377 Entomology and Arachnology (4)
A comprehensive survey of the insects and arachnids of medical, economic, and ecological significance. Includes laboratory examinations of living and preserved specimens and field collections of select taxa. Prerequisite: BIO 200or consent. Offered on demand.
380 Comparative Animal Physiology (4)
A study of the basic mechanisms by which animals function. Emphasizes how both invertebrate and vertebrate organisms change these basic mechanisms to adapt to environmental conditions. Prerequisites: a grade of C or higher in BIO 200 or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.
385 Animal Behavior (4)
A study of the mechanisms and evolution of animal behavior. Topics include genetics and development of behavior, neural and physiological mechanisms of behavior, communication, social behavior, habitat selection, reproductive behavior, and parental investment. Laboratory exercises provide hands-on experiences for many of these concepts. Prerequisites: BIO 130 and sophomore status and higher or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.
393 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (2)
Introduces the essentials and broad research applications of SEM. Topics include the preparation of biological and non-biological specimens, the use of secondary and backscattered electrons for imaging, and the operation of SEM in high vacuum and variable pressure modes. Hands-on training and independent operation of the SEM are mandatory. Identical to EES 393. Prerequisites: Sophomore status and consent. Offered in selected terms
395 Fluorescence Microscopy (2)
Examines the applications of epifluorescence and confocal laser microscopy to the imaging of living cells and tissues. Topics include sample preparation and a review of the principles of fluorescence imaging. Practical training and independent operation of the instrumentation are strongly emphasized. Prerequisites: Sophomore status and consent. Offered in selected terms.
Advanced Light Microscopy (2)
Reviews the fundamentals of light microscopy, with an emphasis upon the compound light microscope, stereomicroscope and polarizing light microscope. Topics include dark-field, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast (DIC), simple fluorescence and basic staining techniques. Use of digital image capture and manipulation software is required. Prerequisites: Sophomore status and consent. Offered in selected terms.
399 Histotechnique (2)
Introduces techniques used to prepare tissues for light microscopy. Topics include a review of laboratory safety procedures, specimen fixation, tissue processing and embedding, sectioning with a microtome, and staining. Hands-on training with a microtome is emphasized. Prerequisites: Sophomore status and consent. Offered in selected terms.
400 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (4)
Introduces the broad research applications of SEM. Topics include sample preparation, critical point drying, sputter coating, imaging, and x-ray microanalysis. Includes weekly hands-on training with the SEM and completion of an independent research project. Identical to EES 400. Prerequisites: junior/senior status and consent. Offered in select terms.
410 Evolution (4)
A study of the theory of biological evolution through natural selection. Topics include micro evolution, speciation, macroevolution, ecology and modern methods of determining phylogenetic relationships. Prerequisites: BIO 130 and 132 and junior/senior status or consent. Offered on demand.
412 Chemical Ecology (4) W
A study of how organisms use chemicals to mediate interactions within and between species. Students will gain experience interpreting primary research articles as varying topics are discussed, such as plant-herbivore interactions, coral chemical defenses, and insect semiochemicals. Prerequisites: BIO 130, BIO 132, any 200-level CHEM course, ENG 105 with a grade of C or higher or consent. Lecture three hours each week. Offered every fall.
420 Cell and Molecular Biology (4)
A study of the structure and function of prokaryotes and eukaryotes at the cellular and molecular level. Emphasizes the molecular nature of cellular structure, metabolism, and physiology. Prerequisite: BIO 288 (grade of C or higher). Offered spring of even-numbered years.
424 Topics in Molecular Techniques (2 or 4)
A focused study on molecular techniques necessary for research and biotechnology applications. Students’ conceptual understanding, troubleshooting and lab-skills will develop on given topics. Topics vary with offerings and may include: gene cloning, gene expression analysis or characterization of protein expression and activity. May be repeated as topics vary. Prerequisite: BIO 288or consent. Offered in selected semesters.
435 Tropical Ecology (4) I
An intensive field experience in neotropical ecosystems (coral reefs, rainforests, caves, mangrove swamps, etc.), that links ecological phenomena with social and historical factors to examine the conservation of biodiversity. Field activities require moderately strenuous exercise and considerable hiking. Destinations may include Trinidad, Belize, Costa Rica, or other tropical sites. Prerequisites: Students must have completed a lab science course (L) and have junior or senior status. Course fee is additional. Student may take this course one additional time for credit. Runs concurrently with BIO 375.
460 Zymurgy: The Science of Fermentation (4) I
Introduces the science and art of fermentation and considers the use of alcohol by human societies. Prerequisite: senior status or consent. Offered in selected January Terms and spring semesters.
470 Internship in the Natural Sciences (2 or 4)
An intensive study of a specific field of science through an on-site field experience with hands-on learning opportunities that are relevant to the chosen site. Students may enroll for 2 or 4 hours in a given semester. A minimum of 80 hours devoted to the internship is expected for 2 semester hours, and a minimum of 160 hours is expected for 4 semester hours, but some placements may require more time. Students must coordinate their internship placement with the supervising faculty member at least two months prior to placement. Pass/fail grading. Prerequisites: junior/senior status and consent. Offered each semester.
475 Natural and Social History of the Chesapeake Bay (4) I
Provides a comprehensive view of one of the largest and most diverse estuaries in the world. Students examine the relationships between the natural history and the human history, including social and political aspects, use of the bay by various societies and their impact on and preservation of the bay. Saturday field trips required. Prerequisite: junior/senior status. Offered on demand.
482 Microbiology (4)
Teaches basic microbiological concepts and the role of microorganisms in various applied areas. Topics include microbial physiology, cell structure, microbial genetics, pathogenic microorganisms and disease, and environmental and applied microbiology. Students practice aseptic technique, isolation and identification of bacteria, staining, and determination of microbial numbers. Prerequisite: BIO 288(grade of C or higher). Offered each fall.
489 Research in the Natural Sciences (2 or 4)
Offers students the opportunity to conduct original scientific research in an area of interest. Students work closely with one or more members of the natural science faculty to develop and conduct a research project, then present their findings orally during the semester’s undergraduate research symposium and as a formal research paper. Students are encouraged to present their findings at a conference. Prerequisite: junior/senior status and a major in the natural sciences, prior approval by the project advisor, and consent of the instructor. Students may enroll for 2 or 4 hours in a given semester. May be repeated for a maximum total of 8 semester hours. Identical to CHEM 489, CS 489, and EES 489. Offered each semester and most January Terms (2 semester hours only).